“Anti-Semitism, contained inside anti-Israelism and anti-Zionism, is like the thunderstorm in the cloud. It can talk brassy, than it is “criminal state of Israel”. It can do the same decently and talk about the “bridgehead of imperialism”. I know as well as anybody, that Israel does objectively bear the role of the occupying force. My personal relations to this land… are practically non existent: I have never visited it, I do not speak its language its culture is ingnominously alien to m e, its religion is not mine .Still the existence of this state is more important to me than any other”.[i]
It is well known that the greek left has an obsession, a repressed memory, a deadly instinct, a macabre enactment, a key-point, a classical arousement of delight, a real Other. It is Israel. Whatever differences they have, for making or not making a party, for supporting or not supporting the state, for preaching Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky or Bakunin, for conflicts over revolutionary history, for the success or non-success of the Second International, for whom said the true “No” to the Italians (the folk or the dictatorship of Metaxas), there is only one point upon which everyone shakes hands: Down with Israel!
This text is devoted to all these people that can’t relax with Israel and have taken their anti-Zionism/ anti-Semitism as their highest priority political task, i.e. almost all the greek Left (yeah, yeah… our arrogance has no limits!). Here, though, we will focus on a small organization from the libertarian Left: Inclusive Democracy. This text is developed in two parts: our critic and a quiz. Through our interactive communication with our readers we have made the first anti-Zionist quiz in Greece, which you will enjoy at the end of this text.
Israel, the Jew among the states
These last months, we have noticed an outburst of the anti-Zionist/ anti-Semitic speech in many texts of the Federaction organization: they have learnt everything, from how you can escape your military service in Israel, about every worker strike in Israel, about every Israeli academic that criticizes Israel, about every check-point in Gaza Strip, about how many meters the length of the Fence is, and from where you can buy the best dates, and a thousand more details… And the Federaction’s fancy slogans…? “Our enemy is here!” (Yeah, right!). In a brochure called “Monitor”, the authors announced the historian of the year (an Israeli historian of course) as Illan Pappe, while, in another magazine, called “Serajevo”, they informed us that the Central Jewish Board in Athens is a… secret agent of Israel, that’s why CJB sued the… harmless neo-nazi Costantinos Plevris. This is, in the meantime, the fundamental reason why “Serajevo” didn’t show up in court so as to show solidarity to the greek Jews that felt endangered by Costantinos Plevris. So, they left the dirty job of facing the greek neo-nazis to the… Israeli Mossad. Well, what’s the rush, anyway, in facing neo-nazis (you know the ones, already shaved bald with the foam of their anger against Israel)?
If we lived in another historical period and not in a post-Auschwitz period, we would probably make the mistake of valuing our political interpretations of anti-Semitism as extreme fantasies of some marginal groups. But not after the Shoah. That’s why we should take these interpretations very seriously, as seriously as a well known and successful (six million times) historical method is taking place. Before they attack the hunted, they start a campaign against them to call them all these names and paint them with all these characterizations that would justify their usage for the goal of extermination.
What is more revolutionary (or patriotic, it comes down to the same thing) than to criticize some secret agents, what is more antifascist than challenging the “new nazis”, what brings more pride than resisting the worst race of the world, what is more liberating than showing resistance against the imperialists of the Middle East, what is more heroic than unmasking their underground conspiracies and their connections with the lobbies of the Diaspora Jews? Let us say it in other words. They will become dangerous, when these names and these characterizations become part of the masses’ experience and possession, when these names and characterizations finally, desperately, need and shout for a solution, a direct solution. That is, when we reach a certain point where, as A. Anders descibed: “Society again broke in two parts. In hunters and hunted. A smell is spreading everywhere. The smell of a machine that produces gas”.
Those whom the fate of the Palestinians, the Arabs etc, concerns them only to the extent that they refer against Israel, they dream of alliances, and “final solutions”, reflecting with their allies what they really desire. Their references to “Black September,” where the Jordans were slaughtering the Palestinians or the take of Lebanon by Syria are non-existent. However, they all know well when exactly Israel occupied Lebanon. It might be as Panousis, the singer, says so as to mock greek judgment about the wars: “When a Serbian slaughters, its different, he will take care, he will not make dirt… he will not leave any orphans behind. But, the Croatian, the Albanian… etc”. If anyone wants to know what kind of societies these people want to create, it will be enough to read what they say about the various organizations that have declared war against Israel. If you get the impression that in the following some people are spreading propaganda about a libertarian Feudarchy, don’t doubt your intelligence, there is no problem with it (some people call it General Secretary, these people call it Seikh).
Α. A CRITIC
In January 2007 we published our first issue, as Terminal 119, that referred to anti-Semitism and the crisis of the relations between Iran and the West. In the same issue, we criticized the Inclusive Democracy organization, which, through its most famous member, the academic Takis Fotopoulos, was systematically refusing, through various texts in the magazine “Inclusive Democracy”, to recognize that there is any kind of anti-Semitism problem in this world. According to Fotopoulos, the most fundamental problem of racism in today’s societies has to do with Islamophobia. We thought that this view, by contrasting, through a weird and senseless contest, these two distinct forms of hatred that today appear in the West simultaneously, goes far beyond the unacceptable. This view is unacceptable because it describes anti-Semitism and Islamophobia as two contradicting powers. Either you have anti-Semitism, or Islamophobia. As we wrote back then, “we think that anti-Semitism and islamophobia are powers that move towards the same direction, as they both begin to appear because of the hatred for “the Other”. On the one hand, it would be silly not to say that anti-Semitism is something much more different and important from Islamophobia as a form of hatred, as a way of extermination etc. That is, anti-Semitism is special because of its heavy, dark and unfortunate history, because of the uniqueness of Auschwitz (and that’s why we cannot compare it with other relations). On the other hand, islamophobia itself can be organized and become an ideology with the “assistance” of anti-Semitism inheritance. We have said that before. Anti-Semitism operates without Jews also but it operates always in an exterminating way”.
In this and only reference to Inclusive Democracy (we had many, many things to say… but we thought this was enough), the ID chose to respond in a rather cute way. In Takis Fotopoulos’ article, “Culture, History, Globalisation” (ID magazine, issue 15, January-March ‘07), the writer devoted to us a bunch of names and characterizations. Because we saw that the writer had no restraints, we decided to respond once and for all, by openly criticizing a lot of greek leftist magazines for their open anti-Zionism/ anti-Semitism…
In the 13th issue of ID (July-September 2006), the editors of this magazine reassured us about the legitimate uses of anti-Semitism inside their democratic project. How did they do that? Through a vast collection of many anti-Semitic stereotypes, always under the cover of anti-Zionism (and its revolutionary role), in the one and only article of their magazine! We don’t want to make any more introductory comments. This is a synopsis of 8 of their major arguments:
1) To Relativize the Holocaust
In many parts of ID’s text we can observe a wide critical analysis of Israel’s war against Hezbollah, one of the parts of the Iranian axis. In this analysis, Israel is characterized as a “Nazi-state” imposing “Nazi-methods” in Lebanon. The “Zionists” or Israel are called terrorists and Nazis. Thus, Inclusive Democracy not only proves that it cannot even understand what fascist ideology and Nazi practice was and is about, but it is also ready to compare it with any kind of armed conflict, such as in Lebanon. This very argument includes a classic anti-Semitic stereotype by which someone wants to lessen the value of the Nazi regime and its atrocities, so as to argue that the present absolute evil can be found evenly in Israel/ Zionism. Things couldn’t be clearer. Do we really need to emphasize this misuse of the past that ID commits? Do we really need to say that the Nazis annihilated in a bureaucratic and systematic way millions of people – and particularly 6,000,000 Jews, who couldn’t resist most of the time due to the concentration camps? Do we need to say that in Lebanon there was an open battle, with victims in each side, between Israel and Hezbollah and that this doesn’t remind us about anything about the Holocaust? Nazifying Israel is not just a single exaggeration or a linguistic mistake, because the word Nazi is repeated many times in this text.
Apart from this, it is said by the authors that Israel is currently conducting a “cleansing” in the Middle East. This accusation is also used in a systematic way throughout the text. This is an argument that ID has invented so as to compare the annihilation of the European Jewry with a supposed annihilation of the Palestinian population, the starting point of which the authors found in Balfour’s Declaration in 1917! The anti-Semitic delirium of ID comes to identify the creation (or the talks about the creation) of the Israeli state with an annihilation!!! ID tries in a systematic manner to refuse the quality and uniqueness of Holocaust. Thus, in the same text they refer to “famous Jews” that seem to agree with Inclusive Democracy, such as Norman Finkelstein, a writer well known because his books have become best-sellers in Germany mainly due to his massive attempt at devaluating the Holocaust. And, later, they also say that the “Palestinian issue stands for the second biggest crime in history, after the Second World War” (the war in general of course…), without even referring to the Shoah.
2) They love and worship any Jew-killer:
ID cannot see the Arab-Israeli conflict in a calm or objective way in any part of the text. Hamas and Hezbollah, responsible for the deaths of thousands of innocent Israelis, Palestinians and Lebanese, are described as “resistance organizations”. At the same time, Israel is described as a terrorist state. Indeed, the authors speak about the “heroic resistance of the Lebanese partisans”, of people that back then were stating that they were happy to see Jews come to Israel, because they wouldn’t have to search them around the world! Well, you can’t find such heroes these days! ID not only tries to persuade us to support the Palestinian resistance (which can be identified with the ongoing blind killings in Israel), but also calls for solidarity with the regimes of Syria and Iran, as states that object to the trajectory of capitalist globalisation, never mind that the Iranians and Syrians themselves are repressed. They add that people shouldn’t promote a motto like “Neither Bush nor Hezbollah”, because this would cause “the transition to a real liberated direction” to stop. This would happen because, [people] wouldn’t reveal the true guilty, and because the movements of Hamas, Hezbollah etch would be defamed and so lose their struggle. But Hezbollah’s “win of the struggle” as ID argues, would be “a presupposition for the utter goal of a libertarian, classless society” (!!!!). In this way, ID doesn’t care about the promises of Ahmadinedjad about wiping Israel off the map, but only in which way the Iranian state can win its battle for a supposed classless society…
It is also important that the Palestinians are never supposed to be responsible for their history and fate. According to ID, less and less Palestinians want to “throw the Jews into the sea” and it seems that “this request is a mere reaction” to a supposed Israeli request to “throw Palestinians out of Palestine”! Finally, throughout this text, ID makes a distinction between the wars begun by “racist Israel” and the wars begun by the “Innocent Arabs”. Israel was totally aggressive in 1967. But, the Arabs, three years after the end of the Holocaust, “were legitimately against the Zionist projects that UN’s decision imposed”! Even, when at the end of the 16-page text, ID decided to murmur some critical words about Taliban or Hezbollah, at the same time they gave an oath of faith to these vanguards of the resistance, due to their community of interests and goals with Inclusive Democracy…
3) Deny “Israel’s right to exist”:
ID, by adopting this kind of anti-Zionism, demands the destruction of Israel as “Zionist machinery”, looks to re-enforce the Jew hunters – all over the world – and to create once more a steady situation of insecurity for the Jewry of the world. Once more, it seems that the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” by the Nazis did not persuade ID at all and, thus, here they come to reveal to the Jews a solution 60 years later that presupposes an exterminating assimilation for them. They achieve this, either by referring to well known democratic writers, such as Hannah Arendt, who allegedly was against the state of Israel and Zionism, or by making propaganda about their own solution (that they thought of as Inclusive Democracy!) which presupposes a single Palestinian-Israeli state with common borders. For ID, Israel is recognized only as an “aggressive and racist entity” and not as a country like all the others on the planet.
4) “There is no anti-Semitism!”:
As these wise ID writers let us know, today there is no anti-Semitism. “The old anti-Semitism has been replaced in the West by a clearly racist Islamophobia that day-to-day grows bigger”. Thus, they don’t just deny the Jew-hatred of which we have daily confirmations from all over the world, but they also identify/ compare anti-Semitism with Islamophobia, a racist hatred that has nothing to do with the eliminatory practices of anti-Semitism. So, the writers also deny anti-Semitism even in its old form because they refuse to recognise (or they supposedly don’t know) the distinctive quality of anti-Semitism, that led Europe to the Holocaust. After this, in the same text, ID shows that it never had any concern about what anti-Semitism really was. It faces this phenomenon as something that belongs to the past. “The pre-war anti-Semitism was mainly made by racist and religious ideologies, while today’s fight against the Zionists has nothing to do with similar ideologies, but is directed against Zionism as a basically racist ideology…”. It seems that, for ID, the rapid increase in the desecrations of Jewish cemeteries during the last years has no meaning. The same goes with the alliyahs of thousands of French Jews to Israel. All these people must be “racists-Zionists”!
We will admit, though, that at a certain point they are right! Not for the reasons they scream about, but for totally different reasons. Today, reaching the aims of anti-Semitism is much more difficult. Not because people have the right idea about the Holocaust and draw the “right conclusions”, not because a global antifascist movement stands as an obstacle to the anti-Semites’ dreams, nor because the USA or other countries protect them, but only for one, very simple, reason, a practical and, thus, effective reason: because today Israel is fully armed and relies on its own defensive tactics and capability. And it also relies on its belief that will it leave Palestine only with the death of Israel.
You see, ID did not manage to persuade them that there is no anti-Semitism nowadays…
ID always tries to find ways to accuse Israel about something – no matter what. If we explore carefully the thirteen issues of ID, we will conclude that most of the magazine’s issues are to do with Israel, rather than with Greece, where most of ID’s members live. That happens because they are characterised by the mania of accusing Israel for everything. Thus, when writing about the Iran’s nuclear issue, ID is not worried at all about the ecological consequences of this fact, or even about the cold-war situation that the planet is heading toward, as nuclear powers proliferate. The only thing that is interesting for them, is that “if Iran gets the nuclear bomb, this will destroy the nuclear monopoly of Israel in the area of Middle East, a thing that is very crucial, because until now Israel represents the cop of the New Order in this certain area…”. In this way, ID forgets once more that Ahmadinedjad promised not only to destroy the alleged nuclear monopoly of Israel but also Israel itself with a nuclear Holocaust!
For ID, the state of Israel is always the aggressor, even when the case is obviously the opposite for everyone else. The state of Israel is aggressive almost by nature and that’s all they have to say. In order to prove to people all these stupidities, they even refer to the “Jenin slaughter” that happened back in 2002, when the (sometimes Zionist!) UN convicted Israel because of its unlimited international defamation and misinformation about the real facts in Jenin. Some years later, the UN was forced to apologise to Israel for believing the journalist crowd. Inclusive Democracy, though, is pretending not know to the truth about Jenin, basing itself on its fans/ readers’ selective memory.
6) Refreshing the “Jewish traitor” stereotype:
ID takes all the old time, classic, anti-Semitic stereotypes, replacing the word “Jew” with the word “Zionist”. It refers at a certain point in the text to the fac that Stalin supported the creation of the state of Israel because he thought “that he could use the Zionist Left against the West, without having any suspicions of course that for a leftist Zionist, Zionism has more priority than the leftist ideology, as the leftist Zionists showed clearly…”. Thus, Inclusive Democracy, thinks it was natural for the USSR to control a part of the Israeli population but thinks it’s weird or abnormal for Israeli citizens to serve Israeli interests. Even, when they serve their own values, they are traitors of someone else’s values! Stalin himself, according to ID, who was apparently known for his cunningness, was deceived by Jewish cunningness. Of course, the Jews are – according to an old prejudice – the most cunning of all people! Thus, Stalin did not get suspicious about its forthcoming treachery.
Today’s European citizens, of course, mostly agree with ID’s analysis. In a question that ADL (Anti-Defamation League) made for an international research of theirs, in 12 European cities, almost 50% of the citizens in each city responded that the Jews that lived in their state care firstly for Israel’s interests and secondarily for their homeland’s interests. Thus, we can observe a refreshing and widely legitimate use of this old stereotype about the imaginary Jew-Traitor, the Zionist agent that conspires against its country, a stereotype that the Nazis have already used for their causes.
That’s why all these revolutionary organizations don’t hesitate to call these few thousands Greek Jews that survived Shoah – and their descendants – “treacherous Trojan horses” of their beloved country (let us remind Inclusive Democracy: treason is only a matter of place and time and nothing else!). And that’s why, we will keep accepting this name for us: traitors of their mobs, traitors of their country, traitors of their people, traitors of their revolutionary values, traitors of their army and their cafes, of their movements and of any taboo and sacred thing they have (if we forgot something, please tell us, so as to be traitors of it also). We are the ones that your parents and instructors were always warning to avoid. Back off anti-Semites!
7) “Refreshingthe “Jew–WorldManipulator”/
According to the stereotype that grew even larger after the racist libel of the Protocols of the Elderly of Zion, the Jews seem to control today’s world strings and, thus, the “system’s propaganda machinery”. Thus, Inclusive Democracy points out that “a high seat into the American elite and, consequently, into the international elite in general, is owned by the international Zionist elite itself, because of its key positions in the international, financial, political and cultural section and especially in the international Media”…
A parenthesis (from us) about Zionism
We see all the more that ID’s obsession with Zionism grows ever larger and demonizes this ideology. We have to say, so as to demystify this notion, that Zionism was in the past just a national-liberatory Jewish movement (e.g. similar to the Kurdish movement). After the Shoah and the destruction of the European Jewry happened, though, Zionism stood and still stands as the form of Jewish survival. It is not by accident that the Constitution of Israel offers every Jewish man or woman, an Israeli citizenship when he/ she gets there. In this way, every Jew that is hunted or is in danger of his/her life, knows that Israel is his/ her LAST refuge, so as to escape from those that threaten him/her, e.g. various anti-Semitic governments, masses or NGAs (Non Government Anti-Semites) like the neo-Nazis of the Golden Dawn, the inclusive democracy network etc.
And, as we write down these thoughts of ours, we wonder, would this be the reason for wanting the destruction of Israel (so as not to have anyone alive)?
8)To show “Israel’s aggressiveness” at any cost:
For Inclusive Democracy, Israel, (the Jewish State), should always be considered as aggressive, a thing that all the anti-Semites of the world have tried to show, even before the Holocaust, so as to justify their hunting down of Jews. This kind of anti-Semitism, which appears to have an existential and necessary form for all these “hunters,” for the future too, has been correctly characterized as a kind of salvation. This notion should be achieved at any cost, either by lies and distortions, or by contradictions in analysis. Thus, ID lets us know that the dead citizens in Lebanon war of 2006 were in the thousands!?! After that, it refers to the Hezbollah hit in Lebanon as if it was one of minor significance, simply saying that “two soldiers were kidnapped”. ID hid the fact that this time the kidnapping of the two soldiers was also combined with the murdering of 8 more soldiers and the launch of several rockets into unsuspecting villages in Northern Israel. So, was this an actual war event or just a minor everyday occurrence? Of course, if ID was talking about Greece or Cyprus, they would cry out against the Turkish fascism and militarization… But this is not the only contradiction.
In ID’s article, the writers constantly speak about the UN as a part of the internationalized domination, of the international elite etc. Nevertheless, it seems that these radicals criticize the UN only when it decides in favor of Israel (e.g. the decision about the disarmament of Hezbollah), while ID accepts the UN as a legitimate institution when it decides in favor of murderous organizations in Palestine (or in cases like the UN conference in Durban, in 2001).
The same goes with regards to religion. ID implied before, as we saw, that Zionism is a priority for any Zionist over and above all other ideologies. Also, within the text, they ironically refer to the fact that, in Zionist terms, Israel is recognized as the religious-national homeland of Jews. On the other hand, when they slam Israel for its “racist goal” to give only half of Jerusalem to the Palestinians, ID implies that it is terrible for the Palestinians that the half of Jerusalem that they will take does not contain a lot of their sacred religious memorials, “that are so important to them”…
Finally, ID probably made the discovery of the year: it informed us that Israel – according to an American journalist – and thus nominated with a Pulitzer prize! – had already made its war plans for the case of Lebanon! Indeed, it’s unbelievable! It is unbelievable to have a state like Israel, that prepares itself for the possibility of having a war with a totally hostile organization, such as Hezbollah that neighbors with it! Indeed, we have to congratulate the minds that realized and uncovered this unbelievable information. Probably, ID has never, ever heard anything about the war plans and exercises that Greece carries out in the Aegean Sea every day, in case of a war with Turkey… But, there is an interesting detail here also. How could the American journalist – the Columbus of the media – resist inside the “beast’s heart”, the “mean USA” and succeed in publishing this information without being checked by those who control the Media, that is, the Zionists??? And how could he, this man of resistance, this hero, not only be a journalist but also be nominated for the annual US Pulitzer prize??? It seems that the conspiracy theories of ID still has some gaps.
Anyway, ID doesn’t need a Pulitzer to show us what is right and what is wrong according to their opinion. Their hatred shows us clearly the anti-Zionist rage that dominates in the writer’s minds. This rage is so dominating that it does not allow them to think calmly for even a minute… In various parts of their text, they write that Israel “butchers anything that moves” or that sometimes Israel blocks the diplomatic procedure so as to “butcher some more Palestinians”. They always speak about Israel as if it is something naturally evil – that is what their style implies. For them, the picture is that fat capitalists with hooked noses, constantly devour dollars and massacre thousands of people with simple, ruthless manoeuvres.
It is common sense that all these images do not emerge from some revolutionary esteem or from some good-will direct democracy project, but, are mostly derive from the obsessions of people like Takis Fotopoulos, who just a few years ago had announced that his mailing list was hit by some imaginary “Zionist circles!”
The arguments of ID are neither surprising nor new. They talk with the usual arguments of a huge part of the greek left and anarchists. We believe that for ID there is no need to worry. They chose correctly. They chose to be with the masses, the people, the greek proletariat etc. The vast majority of the left in Greece would also agree with ID, and they would collaborate with them. They shouldn’t get worried about the criticism we addressed to them, since Terminal 119 is a small group-magazine that no-one pays attention to. Now, if this way (“with the masses”, “with the people” etc.) is an anti-Semitic way, never mind.
Conclusion: We would never urge such people and groups to study and learn about the history of the Holocaust, since we are afraid that if they get to know more details, they will become more dangerous, because if we tell them about the extermination procedure, it’s more possible for them to start making suspicious questions rather than getting more sensitive to the issues at hand.
Below, we have republished a list of phrases that were devoted to our magazine, “Terminal 119” – for social and individual autonomy, in the past year due to its continuing engagement with the issue of anti-Semitism. Nevertheless, we will not reveal the writers of these phrases just yet!!! After that, a list with writers will also follow. Your task is to find who wrote what! Another amazing game for the nights you stay at home!
1) «Not only tries, in this way, to question the legitimate right of people of the Middle East to resistance and national self-determination, but also tries to terminate ideologically all the others in Europe that criticize the USA and Israel politics towards the Mid-East issue, by putting on them the label of “anti-Semites”, “hitlerists” and “racists”»
2) «They write a bunch of nonsense against their gender and the country from which they come»
3) «A new despicable magazine (terminal 119) that is the best means of spreading the New-Order propaganda with an allegedly-libertarian veil in our country»
4) «We have here some extreme Zionists disguised as allegedly anarchists, allegedly democrats who go openly and make their Zionist propaganda. […] Terminal 119 – is an Islamophobic group that is created after 11th of September so as to defend the dominants and the enslaved from racism.
Behind them, the Jews have gathered who muddied the waters, responding to issues that never have been put so as to mislead the discussion and defame the Left. […] Leave the nonsense agents of Israel and Zionists, the world in a vacuum»
5) «Terminal 119 is basically a mouthpiece of propaganda for the theses of the American, and especially the Israeli politics in our country»
6) «These bullies of New Order – or American-quislings if you prefer – are distinct because of their pro-American, pro-imperialist, pro-Zionist, individualist, anti-patriotic and nation-phobic theses. They develop an intense pro-imperialist action and propagate the new-order ideology».
7) «This clandestine magazine… after adopting all the Western and Zionist propaganda that indirectly “justifies” the planned Western-Zionist hit against the Iranian people and after it justifies the last year’s beastly Zionist bombings against the Lebanese people…»
a) anonymous writer of Indymedia
b) “Resalto” leftist magazine – issue 25
(republished by the autonomous neonazis of “Mavros Krinos”)
c) “Resalto” leftist magazine – issue 25 (once more)
d) “Resalto” leftist magazine – issue 25 (once more)
e) “Inclusive Democracy” leftist magazine – issue 15
f) anonymous writer of Indymedia
g) “Inclusive Democracy” leftist magazine (once more)
For social and individual autonomy
PS. If you want to cheat, check out the quiz solutions… 1-b, 2-f, 3-e, 4-a, 5-c, 6-d, 7-g.
 See the quiz below.
 «The System’s New Order attack to Lebanon and Palestine and the resistance of people» – by Takis Fotopoulos and Thodoris Velissaris.
[i] Respectable Anti-Semitism – Jean Amery, from “Why your revolution is not liberation – Reader”.